\

r

/

THIRTY-EIGHT PLATES,

WITH

E X F L A N A T I O N Ss

INTENDED TO ILtUSTRATE

LINNiEUS^ SYSTEM of VEGETABLES,

AND PARTICULARLY ADAPTED TO THE

LETTERS ON the ELEMENTS of BOTANY.

By THOMAS MARTYN, B.D.F,R,S.

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAPvlBRIDQE.

LONDON:

printed for b, white and son, AT Horace's head, flee t-srteet.

M DCe LXXXVIII.

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2015

https://archive.org/details/thirtyeightplateOOmart_0

( iii )

ADVERT I SEME NT-

Some perfons, who have honoured the Letters on the Elements oj Botany with their approbation, having fignified a wi(h that the fubjed: might be ftill farther illuflrated by figures, Mr. Nodder, an ingenious artift, has been employed for this purpofe, and has both drawn and engraved thirty- eight plates. By thefe, and the explana- tions which are given on the oppofite page, the Author hopes that he may have met the ideas of his friends.

Thefe plates, with their explanations, may be confidered as an entire work : but

a 2 it

( Iv )

it is prcfumed that they will be much more fatisfadtory when ftudied jointly with the letters : accordingly they are referred to in every plate : and, that each edition might be equally ufeful, the former figures always refer to the firft edition, and the latter figures to the fecond.

Six plates are given to illuftrate Roufleau's fix letters upon the moft remarkable Natu- tural Clafles. The reft are intended to explain the Clafles of Linnseus's Syftem, in their order, except the thirty-fourth, which exhibits figures of the moft re- markable Nedlaries. No general plate, explanatory of the claflical charaders, is given; both becaufe it has already been elegantly done by Mr. Curtis, and alfo may eafily be colledted from the particular plates of this work.

Thus

( V )

Thus the charafter of the Clals

MpNANDRiA IS explained in

BIANBRIA

TRIANDRIA DIGYNIA MONOGYNIA TETRANDRIA PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA DIGYNIA

}

HEXANDRIA HEPTANDRIA OCTANDRIA ENNEANDRIA') DECANDRIA DODECANDRIA rCOSANDRIA POLYANDRIA DIDYNAMIA TETRADYNAMIA MONADELPHIA DIADELPHIA POLYADELPHIA SYNCENESIA

Plate VII.

VIII* IX-

X.

XI.

xir, V. and xiir. I. and XIV-

xv«

XTI.

XVII- XVIII.

XIX.

iv. and XX.

II. and xxr. xxir.

III. and XXIII.

XXIV.

POLYGAMIA JEQUALIS XXV.

- " SUPERFLUA XXVI.

SYNdENESIA

Aw

( vi )

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA and

NECESSARIA SEGREGATA

}

XXVIIi

MONOGAMIA

CYNANDRIA ^

MONOECIA ^ . .

UlOECIA

POLYGAMIA *— CRYPTOGAMIA, FILICES -J— » ' MUSCI '

■■ ALG^ ^

FUNGI

xxviii;

XXIXi XXX. XXXIi XXXII.

xxxiir. XXXV,

XXXVI. XXXVII,

XXX VI I

PLATE

( I )

PLATE 1. LETTER L

LILUCEOm FLOWERS. Lillum candidum. White Lily. 24 22*

a The flower in bud.

b The corol expanding.

c The corol quite open.

d The piftil or pointal.— ^ The germ.

f The ftyle. g The fligma. b The fix ftamens. /The filaments.

k The anthers. / The germ advanced into a pericarp,

which here is a capfule. m A tranfverfe fedlion of the pericarp, to

fliow the three cells and feeds.

( 3 )

PLATE II. LETTER IL

CRUCIFORM FLOWERS. Cheiranthus incanus. Stock-Gilliflower.

a A flower of the flock, fliowing the four petals and the cruciform fliape of the corol.

b A back view of it, exhibiting the calyx, confifting of four leaflets, and bulging out at the bottom.

c A Angle petal feparated, to fliow the lower narrow part, called ungiiisy or the tail ; and the upper fpreading part, named lamina^ or the border, emarginated or notched at the end.

d A fedlion of the calyx, with the Angle pifl:il and fix fl:amens in their proper fituation.

e The fix ftamens, two of which are fenfi-

bly (horter than the other four, f The pifl:il feparated from the other parts. g A fingle flamen.

b The fruit, feed-veflel, or pericarp, called a filique, opening from the bottoni A 2

( 4 )

Upwards, and fhowing the two valves,, with the feeds ranged along ^he dif- fepiment, or partition, of the two cells, and the permanent ftigma at the top.

i k I Figures of filicles, or fmall fhort pods. / The flat triangular, or heart-fhaped filicle

of the fhepherd's purfe. k The oblong filicle of fcurvy-grafs, both

fhut and open. / The almoft fpherical filicle of candy-tuft.

See Letter XXIU. p. 327 324. and

plate XXI.

e Explains the claffical charadler of the clafs Tetradynamidy p. 97 92. and

h i k I Explain the charadters of the two orders, Siliquofa and Siliculofa^ intq which it is divided^ p. 104 99,

flate

( 5 )

i

PLATE III. LETTER III.

PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS. I^ifum fativiim. Garden Fea. 36 34.

Fig. 1. The peduncle or flower-ftem of the pea, fhowing the papilio- naceous corol in three different fituations.

a A ydung flower not fully expanded.

b An expanded flower, Ihowing the back; the ftandard, or banner, fully dif- played, and the calyx cleft into five parts.

C A fide view of an expanded flower, fhowing the banner, wings, and keel, in their natural fituation. * Fig. 2. The banner (vexillu?n)y obcordate or inverfely heart-fhaped, and ernarginate.

3. The two wings (alee).

4. The keel ( carina ) .

5. The pifl;il and ftamens in their

natural fituation.

A3

( 6 )

6. The lower broad ftamen, which

involves the germ, termi- nating in nine filaments, with an anther on each,

7. The upper narrow filament, ac-

companied with the piftil.

8. The pericarp, which is a legume,

or pod, open to (how the two valves and the feeds faftened alternately to the futures of the valves at the back of the legume. The permanent calyx is alfo here exhibited. Tlie charafter of the clafs Diadelphta^ and of the order Decandria^ as alfp of the natural clafs of Legumimus plants, is here explained*

. ( 7 )

PLATE IV. LETTER IV.

RINGENT FLOWERS,

Fig, I, Lamium album. White Dead Nettle^ 45 42-

a Part of a whirl of flowers, fhowing how they grow in the bofom of a leaf.

b A fingle flower, fliowing the ftrudure of a labiate or ringent corol, and of that of the Lamium in particular.

c The corol cut away, in order to fhow more difl:indlly the fituation of the {lamens and the claffical charader.

d The germs, with the ftyle.

e The calyx, with the four feeds within it.

Fig. 2. Antirrhinum majus. Snapdragon ^ 319 315-

a The clofed ringent, or perfonate corol,

in its natural form. h The corol opened, to (how the fituation

of the {lamens. Q The capfule, with the permanent ftyle

and calyx,

A4

( 8 )

Pig. 3, Digitalis purpurea. Purple Fox- glove, 320 317.

a A fingle flower, fliowing the open bell-

fliaped corol. if The infide, exhibiting the fituation and

ftrudure of the ftamens. c The germ, with the flyle.

The capfule, with the ftyle permanent. e A feSiion of the capfule. y A capfule, deprived in part of its outer

fkin, to {how the interior texture of

the coat.

Ob/, c in Fig. i. and i in Fig. 3. will ferve to corredl an error in p. 3 10 306. where it fliould have been faid, the outer pair [of ftamens] longer than the oiher.

( IX )

PLATE VL LETTER VL

COMPOUND FLOWERS.

Fig. I. Bellis perennls. Common Daify^ 65 60.

d The flower, which is compound and of the radiated kind, having femiflorets or ligulate florets in the ray, and tu- bular florets in the difk.

b A fedion of the receptacle, with the florets on it.

c A femi-floret.

d The cylinder of anthers, with the Hylc

perforating it, e A floret.

Fig. 2. Leontodon Taraxacum. Dandelion,

68-63.

a The whole compound flower, confifting entirely of femi-florets, called by Lin- naeus ligulate florets.

b A fingle flofcule.

c The head of feeds.

( )

Fig. 3 -

Showing a flofculous flowef, or a flo?wef compoied of florets only, called by Linnaeus tubular florets. a The whole compound flowers. b A fingle flofcule.

The back of a compound flower, fliow- ing the calyx.

Fig. 4, Trifolium pratenfe. Red Clover. 69 - 64.

To fhow the difference between this, which is a head or aggregate of flowers, and a genuine compound flower, fuch as Fig» i> 2, 3, exhibit.

.1

( 13 )

PLATE VII. LETTER XL MONJNDRIA.

Fig. !• Canna indica, Indian Shot. 123 117.

a a a Three different views of the flower, the corol cut into fix lanceolated parts, one of the three interior re- fledled.

b The fcabrous germ, with

c The triphyllous perianth, or calyx, on

the top of it. 4 The anther growing to one of the petals,

which ferves it for a filament. e The ftyle, growing to the petaliform

filament. f The fcabrous capfule. ^ Cut open to fhow the three cells.

Fig. 2. HIppuris vulgaris. Mares TaiL 121 1 15,

a a The germ. p The ftamen. f The ftyle.

( ^5 )

PLATE VIIL LETTER XIL

DUNDRIA,

Fig. I. Veronica Chamaedrys, Wild Speedwell. 129 123.

a The wheel-fhaped corol, divided into four fegments, the lowefl: (b) nar- rower than the reft.

c The caplult.

d The oval, wrinkled leaves, indented about the edge.

Fig. 2. Jafminum officinale. White Jafmine. 127 I2i.

e A front view of the monopetalous falver- fliaped corol, divided into five feg- ments.

b A back view of the corol,

c The tube of the corol, with the anthers

lying within it. d The calyx, with the rudiment of the

fruits

e A leaf pinnated, with all the lobes diftindl.

( i6 )

Fig, 3, Salvia officinalis. Garden Sage, 131 125.

a A flower.

t The two ftamens, (howing their fingu-

lar ftrudlure. c The pifliil feparate.

( 17 )

PLATE IX. LETTER tllh

TRUNDRIA DIGTNIA, GRASSES.

Fig. 1 4 Lolium perenne. Ray Grafsi 149, 154—143, 148.

As an inftance of a fpiked grafs.

Fig 2, Da6lylis glomerata. Hard Grafs, a The chaiFor glume. b b b The three ftamens. Q The two refleded ftjles, with the fea- thered ftigmaSi

&

4

( i9 J

t^LATE X. LETTER XIV,

TRUNDRIJ MO NOG TN! J.

iris pumila;

a The fheath, or fpathe.

i The corol, conlifting of fix parts, united

at the bafe.

t c The outer petals, called falh.

d d The inner petals, called jlandards.

e e The petaUform ftigma, each part con- cealing one ftamen under it*

f A fingle flamen.

g The germ, inferior or below the corol,

h h The nedary, in a villous line along the refleded petals.

B 2

Plate XI.

3

JDrmm XEn^-f^ bvFBMJder.- B/h/^hd Mn/ ZT/S6,a£ ike^Ad directs- ay S. V/7iztA SsSor--.

( 21 )

PLATE XL LETTER XV.

TETRANDRIA,

Fig. I. Scabiofa columbaria. Small Scabious, 168—162.

An aggregate flower, confifting of many flof-

cules.

h A fingle flofcule j the corol cut into five irregular fegments, and the germ crowned with hairs.

C The calyx, with the four ftamens and the piftil.

Fig* 2. Rubia peregrina. Wild Madder,

An inftance of ftellated plants, 169.

The fquare ftalk: the ftellated leaves: the corol of four fegments: the double germ below the flower.

Fig. 3. Plantago lanceolata. Ribwort Plantain, 172 166.

(2 The flowers growing in a fpike or oblong head.

B 3

( 22 )

f The angular fcape.

(7 A fingle flower, exhibiting the quadrific}

corol and the very long filaments, d The germ anJ ftyle. The caiyx, inclofing the capfule.

( 23 )

PLATE XII. LETTER XVL

PENTJNPRU MONOGYNIA,

Fig. 1. Nicotiana Tabacuiji. Commou Tobacco, ZQi 195,

a A flower-bud,

^ A flower, fhowing the funnel - fli aped

corol difplayed. C The corol removed, to ihov/ the five

fl:amens and piftil. A tranfverfe feilion of the capfde.

Fig. 2. A flower of Dodecatheon Mcadia' 181 175.

pig. 3. ConvolvuUis feplum. Great Bind- PFeed* 190 ^184.

a The corol, with the Involucre Immedi- ately below it, at Fig. 3.

b The five ftamens difplayed.

0 The germ, within the calyx, with ths fl)'le, terminated by the two fligmas* B 4

( 24 )

Fig. 4. Lonlcera Capri''bllum. Garden Honey fuckle, 2 1 q 2 04.

^ A flower, exhibiting the irregular mono?

petalous corol. b The tube opened, to fhow the manner

in which the filaments are fixed. The piftiL

Fig. 5. Vinca major. Great Periwincle. 220 214.

c The corol, fhowing the bending of its five divifions, and the pentagon form of the fauxy or opening of the tube.

I? The calyx divided to the bottom into five fegrnents ; and the piftil with two fiigma?, one over the other.

c The tube of the corol opened, to ITiow the fituaiion of the five {lament an4 form of the anthers,

d A fingle itamen feparate*

( ^5 )

PLATE XIII. LETTER XVIL

PENTJNDRIA DIGTNIA.

Fig. !• Sium nodiflorum. Creeping Water

Parfnep, 236 230.

To (how the difference between this plant and water crefTes, reprefented in Plate XXI.

^ A pinnated leaf, the pinnae, fmall or com- ponent leaves, longer and narrower than thofe of water crefTes, ferrated on the edges and pointed at the end: the terminating pinna trifid. b A feffile umbel of flowers, c A fingle flower. d The fruit.

Fig. 2. Scandix Anthrifcus. Hemlock Chervil.

234 228, To fhow the diflFerence between that and

Garden Chervil y Plate 5, Fig. 3. n An umbel of flowers. b An umbel of fruits.

Fig. 3. Scandix Peden. Shepherd's Needle^ or Venus*s Comb. 245 239.

fi The umbels, being inftances of a fimple umbel.

^ The feeds, terminated by the long pro- ceflTes or beaks, which gave occafion to the names.

Pl.Xl\

( 27 )

PLATE XIV. LETTER XVlll

fiEXJNDRIA.

Fig, I, Tradefcantia Virginica. Virginia^ Spiderwort* 251 -24.5.

a The corol of three petals. ^ b The three-leaved calyx. f One of the fringed filaments. d ThepiftiK

pig. 2. Narciffus Tazetta. Polyanthus Narn^ cijjiiu 252 246.

^ The corol in front, fhowing the fix equal petals, and the funnel or cup-fhaped nedary.

^ A back view of the flov^er, fhowing that the corol is fuperior, or on the top of the germ.

f The fpathe.

4 The corol opened, to fliow the fituatlon of the fix ftamens within the nedary, f The piftil.

( ^9 )

PLATE XV, LETTER XIX.

HEPTANDRIA.

Fig. I. -^fculus Hlppocaftanum. Horfe Chefnut, 262 256.

a The corol of five petals, and the fevea ftamens, with bending filaments.

b The one-leafed calyx, fwelling at thebafe, and divided at top into five fegments.

The young capfule terminated by the ftyle,

d A fingle ftamen.

OCTANDRIA.

Fig. 2. Oenothera biennis. Tree Frimrofe. 263 257.

a A flower, {liowing the four-parted calyx, and the corol of four obcordate petals.

b The eight ftamens, and the piftil in the middle, with the deflefted calyx.

c The pifti!, with the filiform ftyle and the quadrifid ftigma,

d The capfule.

e A tranfverfe fe£tion of the capfule, Ihow-

ing the four cells, f The feeds,

( 3<5 )

Fig. 3. Epilobium anguftlfolium, Prenci IVillow. 264 258.

a The flower.

b The four-leaved calyx.

c The flamens, four longer and four Hiorter*

d A fingle ftamen,

e The piflil.

f The capfule.

g A feed crowned with down*

( 31 )

PLATE XVI. LETTER XlX.

ENNEANDRIA HEXAGTNIA.

Fig. I. Butomus umbellatus. Flowering Rujh. 272 266*

a The flower of fix petals, b The nine flamens, c The fix capfules.

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

Fig. 2. Diftamnus albus. Fraxinella^ 273 267,

a The flower, with a corol of five fpreading petals,

h The five-leaved calyx, with the capfules. A fingle filament, with its glandules.

( 33 )

PLATE XVII. LETTER XX.

DODECANDRIA DODECAGYNIA^

Sempervivum teftorum. Common Houfeleeh 290 285.

a The flower-ftem, with a reflexed range of flowers.

b A flower in front, fliowing the corol of

twelve petals. c The calyx, with the capfules, after the

flower is pafl. d A fingle capfule.

c The twelve ftamens and twelve ftyles,

feparated from the flower. / A fingle piftil, exhibiting the germ, ftyle,

and anther. g Two flamens.

( 35 )

PLATE XVIII. LETTER XXL

JCOSJNDRIJ,

Fig. I. Myrtus communis. Commoit Mvrtle* 295- 29O0

a The corol,

b The fruit or berry.

c A fmgle flower without the corol, fhowing the ftamens proceeding from the calyx.

Fig. 2. Pyrus Cydonia. The Slui?2ce. 79 74? 297 292.

Obf. The letter a is by miflake placed too low in the plate*

( 37 )

PLATE XIX. LETTER XXL TOLYANDRIA.

Fig I. Caltha paluftris. Marfi Marigold.

a A flower fhowing the corol of five petals, the many ftamens flhorter than the corol, &c.

b Another flower, fliowing that it has no calyx.

c The capfules, after the flower is paft.

Fig. 2. Papaver Rhoeas. Corn Poppy. 301 296.

a The corol of four large roundifh petals. b The numerous ftamens proceeding from

the receptacle. c The capfule crowned with its fligma.

Obf. Fig. I. is an infl:ance of the order Folygynia. Fig. 2. of the order Monogynia,

PL XX.

( 39 )

PLATE XX. LETTER XXII,

DIDTNAMU GTMNO^PERMIA.

Fig. I. Glechoma hedcracea. Ground Ivy.

3^^—307- a The kidney-fhaped leaves. b The ringent flowers.

c A flower opened, to iliow the fitULition of

the ftamens.

d A flower exhibiting the cruciform appear- to 1 i

ance of the anthers. e The calyxes. f A Angle filament. g The piftil.

DIDTNAMU ANGIOSPERMIA.

Fig. 2. Bignonia rad leans. Tnimpet Flower, 321 317.

a The calyx. b The corol.

c The corol difplayed, to Tnow the fitiiatloa

of the ftamens. d The piftil.

Obf. The claffical charafter is clearly fhown

at Fig. 2. c. This clafs was farther illuftrated in Plate IV.

C 4

1

( 41 )

PLATE XXI. LETTER XXIIL

TErRADTNAMIA.

Silymbrium Nafturtium. Water Crefs^ 330, 236 327, 230.

^ a The pinnated leaves.

b The odd lobe ending blunt.

c The corymb of flowers.

d A fingle four-petalled cruciform flower.

e A fingle petal.

f The calyx.

g The calyx, with the fl:amens«

Jo A fingle fl:amen.

i The filique.

Compare Plate XIII. See alfo Plate IL

Plate XXII .

( 43 )

. PLATE XXir. LETTER XXIV. MONADELPHIA,

Fig. I. Althaea ofFicinaliSo Marfi Mallow. 344 341-

a The flower fiiowing the five petals united at bottom, obcordateor inverfely heart- fliaped, and flightly emarginated or end - nicked. In the centre is the column of ftamens, with the piftils in the middle of them.

b The column of ftamens and piftils re- moved from the corol, and fliowing the rudiment of the fruit underneath.

c The piftil feparate.

d The calyx, exhibiting the nine divifions of the outer calyx, which is one of the principal generic characters.

Fig. 2, Malva fy Iveftris. Common Mallow. 344 341.

a The flower as before. The petals nar- rower, heart-fliaped, and much more deeply end-nicked.

b c The column of ftamens, and piftil fe- parated.

( 44 )

d The fruit, with the double calyx; the outer very narrow, the clefts of the inner broad and large : there are five of thefe and three diftinft leaves in the other -y but all of them could not be reprefented» The fruit flat, with many feeds in a rip.g, each covered with its aril, or loofe coat.

Fig. 3. Geranium zonaJe. Horfe-Jhoe Cranef- bill 338—333-

a The flower, fliovving the corol^ of five unequal petals, vviih the column of ftamenSj very flightly connected at bottom, and of unequal lengths.

b The calyx, v/ith the column of ftamens. Both thefe figures fhow the ftyle ftand- ing up above the ftamens, and termi- nated by five ftigmas,

c The fruit, with the permanent ftylc and ftigmas ; ftiowing the beaked form of it, and the five feeds in their arils, each terminated by a tail, and feparating from the beak, a b c fhow that the calyx is fingle and five-leaved.

Ne B. Thefe figures ferve to explain the clafs mojiadelphia (97 92.) : and two of the orders, decandria^ Fig. 3, and polyandria, Fig. i, 2.

Fi. xxnr.

( 45 )

PLATE XXIII. LETTER XXV.

DUDELPHIA DECANDRU,

Lathyrus latifolius. Everlajling Pes. 361 358.

Fig. I. A bunch of flowers, in their natural

fize and fituation. Fig. 2. The banner. Fig. 3, One of the wings. Fig. 4. The keel.

^^S- 5- The ftamens and piftil in their na- tural fituation.

Fig. 6. The ftamens, fhowing the fimple filament feparate from the com- pound one.

Fig. 7. The piftil.

See Plate III.

Fi.xxiv:

( 47 )

PLATE XXIV. LETTER XXV.

POLTAD ELPHU,

Hypericum Afcyron. Garden Tutfan. 374. 377 37^' 374- a The flower, with a corol of five petals and the numerous ftamens in the middle.

^ A fingle pencil or parcel of ftamens.

c The permanent five -parted calyx, in- cluding the germ terminated by five piftils.

b Explains the charafters of the clafs and order Polyadelphia Polyandria, p, 98, 93, and 118 112.

( 49 )

l^LATE XXV. LETTER XXVL

STNGRNESIA POLTGJMU M^ALIS,

Fig. I. Tragopogon porrifolium. Salfafy. 382 379.

a A flower clofed, fhowing the fimple calyx,,

b A fingle ligulate flofcule.

c A flofcule, deprived of the corol.

d A feed, with the feathered flipitate down.

e The cylinder of anthers, with the piflil

perforating it, terminated by the two

revolute ftigmas. f The cylinder of anthers alone.

Fig. 2. Carduus nutans. Mujk T^hiftle.

385-382.

a The conipound flower, Chowing the calyx all imbricate with thorny fcales,

h A front view of the whole compound flower, compofed wholly of tubulous florets.

c A Angle flofcule or floret. d The cylinder of anthers. e The piftil.

D

/

( 50 )

Fig. 3. Eupatorium cannabinum. Common Hemp Agrimony, 387 384.

a A bunch of flowers. b A fingle flower. c A fingle bunch of flowers. d The down.

Obf, Thefe three figures explain the three fedlions of this order. i. Con- taining compound flowers with li- gulate florets only. 2. The capi- tate, or headed flowers, with tu- bulous florets only. 3. The difcoid, or naked difcous flowers, with tu« bulous florets, but not in a head.

Plate XXVI.

r 51 )

PLATE XXVI. LETTER XXVL

STNGENESU FOLTGAMIA SUPERFLUJ.

Doronicum pardalianches. Common Leopard's Bane. 397—394.

a The compound radiated flower, conlifting of regular tubulous flofcules in the dilTc, and irregular ligulate flofcules in the ray.

b The under part of the flower, fhowing the double row of fcales to the calyx.

c One of the femi-florets, or ligulate flof- cules, taken from the ray, to fhow that the feed is naked, or deftitute of down.

d A floret from the diflc, the feed of which is crowned with a fimple down,

e A fedtion of the difk, in order to exhibit the naked receptacle.

D 2

V

PI. xxvn.

( 53 )

PLATE XXVII. LETTER XXVL

STNGEN. POLTG. FRUSTRANEA and NECESSJRIJ.

Fig. I. Centaurea montana. Mountain Blue Bottle. 405 402.

a The compound flower, fliowing the neutral or barren florets on the outfide, longer than the fertile ones in the middle, and the ciliated fcales of the calyx.

b A barren floret.

c A fertile floret, with fome of the brift:les

at the bafe. d The fame, divefted of the coroU e The piftil.

N. B. This ferves to explain the order Poly- gamia Frufliranea in the clafs Syn- genefia. 118 112.

Fig. 2. Calendula officinalis, Garde?2 Marigold. 406 403.

a The compound radiated flower.

b The calyx, with the feeds in the ray only,

bending inwards after the florets are

decayed.

D 3

( 54 )

c The boat-{l:iaped muricated feed, without down.

^ A barren feed, from one of the central flowers.

e A fertile fiofcule from the ray. f A barren flofcule from the dilk.

N.B. This ferves to explain the order Poly- gamia NecefTiria in the clafs Syn-^ genefia. ii8— ^ii^.

( 55 )

PLATE XXVIII. LETTER XXVL

S TNG EN. POLTG. SEGREGATE

Echinops fphaerocephalus. Globe Thijlle. 406 403.

V

a The entire compound flower, confifting of tubular florets, feparated by their proper perianths ; which determines this plant to be of the fegregate order in the clafs '^yngenefia.

^ A finuated l^af, the jags ending in fpines.

c A fingle flofcule in its calyx.

a A flofcule taken out of the calyx, with the ^^yle feparate.

e A fingle fubulate leaflet of the calyx, in three different view^.

D 4

Fi:XXTX.

( 57 )

PLATE XXIX. LETTER XXVI.

SXNGENESIA MONOGAMIA. Viola odorata. Sweet Violet. 407 404.

a The calyx of five leaves.

b The corol of five irregular petals,

c The horn-ftiaped nedlary.

d A flower opened, to fhow^ the ftamcns

w^ith the five conneded anthers, e The ftamens within the calyx. f A fingle ftamen, g The piftil.

h h h The heart-fhaped leaves.

/ / The young leaves, involuted, rolled

inwards, or rather upwards. li k k The fcape, with the double brafte on

the middle of it. I One of the ftolones, or runners, putting

forth roots.

/

ri.xxx .

C 59 )

PLATE XXX. LETTER XXVIL

GTNANDRIA

Paffiflora casrulea. Blue TaJJion Slower. 425 422.

a The palmated leaf.

b The corol and calyx, each of five leaves, and having the fame appearance in front.

c The radiate crown, which is the neflary,

d The piftil and five ftamens.

e The anthers terminating the filaments,

which fpring from the bottom of the

germ, where it meets the pedicle,

upon which it ftands. f f f The three fiigrnas arifing from th«^

germ.

( 6i )

PLATE XXXI. LETTER XXVIIL

MONOECIA.

Momordica Elaterium. Spirting Cucumber. 452 449.

a a The male or ftaminiferous flowers.

b b The female or piflilliferous flowers, with the large germ below the receptacle.

c The male flower, (howing the three fila- ments, with double anthers on two of them, and a fimple anther on the third.

d The germ, furmounted with the fl:yle, divided into three parts, each part fuftaining an oblong gibbous fligma.

e The d'vidcd part of the %le, with the flig: las,

/ Two different views of a fingle fligma.

PI .VYXH.

( 63 )

PLATE XXXII. LETTER XXIX.

DIOECU.

Cannabis fativa. Hemp. 457 454*

Fig. I. Female Hemp.

a A fingle female flower.

b The leed included within the calyx.

Fig. 2. Male Hemp, a Male flowers feparate.

PLXxxnr.

( 65 )

PLATE XXXIII. LETTER XXX.

POLTGAMIA MONOECU. Acer campeftre. Common Maple, a a The lobed leaves,

h b Bunches of flowers. c Perfed. ->

d Male, with ftamens only. e A fingle perfedl flower. f A petal.

g A perfed: flower divefl^sd of the coroi and

calyx. h A fingle flamen.

i The piftil, with the two revolute ftigmas, and the rudiment of the two capfules, terminating- in a wing:.

k A male, or ftaminiferous flower^ and a fingle petal of it.

( 6; )

PLATE XXXIV. LETTER XXXI,

NECTARIES,

Fig. I. Aconitum Napellus. Blue Monk's Hood. 478 475. 304 299.

a a The two recurved pedunculated nec* tarles.

b A fingle nedlary, taken out of the flowar.

Fig, 2. Delphinium Ajacis. Garden Lark- fpur. 478—475. 304—298.

a The nedary, continued backward in form of a horn or fpur.

Fig' 3* Parnaffia paluftris, 247 241. 474— 471-

^ A flower, with the nedlareous fcales at the bafe of the llamens.

b The five heart-fhaped nedaries, termi- nating in hairs> with a httle ball on the top of each, and placed between the ftamens.

Fig. 4. A petal of the Ranunculus, (bowing the honied gland juft above the bafe, on the infide at a a,

308 303. 472 475. E2

( 63 )

Fig. 5. Iris or Flag, The neflary, in form of a villous line, along the middle of one of the reflexed petals. 162 156. 473 476.

Fig. 6. Fritillaria Imperialis. Crown ImperiaL 473 476.

a An excavation at the bafe of the petal, which is the nedary.

Fig. 7. Afphodelus luteus. Tellow AJphodeL

472 475-

a The flov^er, lliowing the fix ftamens, each fitting on its valve^, and the fix valves forming an arch over the germ,

b A fingle filament on its fcale, which is infer ted into the bafe of the petal.

Fig. S. Hellcborus fcetidus. Stinking Black Hellebore* 305 300.

a The tubular nectaries placed in a ring at

the bafe of the ftamens. b A fingle nedtary.

( 69 )

PLATE XXXV. LETTER XXXIL

CRTPrOGJMlA FILICES. Ferns.

Ofmunda Spicant. Rough Spkenwort, 490 487.

Fig. r. The barren frond. Fig. 2. The fertile frond. Fig. 3. A fingle pinna magnified, with the

fcales 2it a a and covers of the

capfules at b b.

Fig, 4.. A part of the pinna, more magni- fied, with the anthers on the rib at and the membrane rolled back at b by to exhibit the rudi- ments of the feed-vefl^els at c c.

( 70 )

PLATE XXXVI. LETTER XXXIL

CRTPrOGAMIA MUSCL MoJJes,

495 492. Bryum pyriforme. Pear Bryum,

Fig. I . The mofs of its natural lize.

Fig. 2. The anthers yet entire.

Fig. 3. The female flower, while it is yet inclofed within the inmoft leaves.

Fig. 4. The fame feparated, with the ap* pendages, viz. a a the adduftors. b b the cylindrical jointed threads.

PI. XXXXl.

( 71 )

PLATE XXXVII. LETTER XXXIL

CRTPTOGAMIA ylLGM.

Lichen ciliaris. Ciliated Liverwort:

Fig. I. The plant of its natural fize.

Fig. 2. The fame magnified.

a a The male or barren flowers.

h b The females in a ftate of ripenefs,

c c The rooting hairs.

d d The hairs, or ciliae, growing on the

extremities. Fig. 3. The feeds magnified.

( 72 )

PLATE XXXVIII. LETTER XXXIL

CRTPrOGAMIA FUNGI. Fungufes. 501—498. Agaricus Dillen. giff. p. 185.

Fig, I. Plants of different ages, and of their

natural fize. a Is the Fungus in its perfedl or adult ftate. b The fame in its middle ftate. c Small plants juft riling.

Fig, 2. A parcel of knotted threads from

the fungus marked fuppofed to be the ftamens.

Fig. 3. A fcCiion of the cap (a) and la- mella (b) oi the fame fmall fungus magnified.

Fig. 4. The ripe feeds of this fungus much maornificd.

o

Cbf, Thefe four plates are copied from Hedwig's Thecria, it would have anhvered little purpcfe to figure fuch minute plants of their natural fize only.

THE END.

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