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riinlcd by H. I, h ll p r jr, Tubingen


The first era of the ..Macrolepidoptera of the World; comprising the palearetic fauna, conid yet be completed in the year 1914. It is only to-day that the second large division containing the exotic d a y- b a 1 1 e r f 1 i e s is coming to a close. On 458 plates the whole day-butterflies of the Indo-Australian, American, and Ethiopian ranges were figured, iniless they were dispensable or vuiavailablc.

The present fifth volume which I herewith place before the public, comprehends the R h o p a 1 o c e r a a n d G r y ]) o c e r a of t h e w hole of A m eric a with a delimitation as has been tried to substantiate on p. 3 (of the Introduction). To those who do not consider this delimitation to be sufficient for faunistic reasons which doubts are not unjustified it may be pointed out that, in order to financiate such expensive enterprises as was the production of the Macrolepidojitera, practical theoretical considerations have sometimes to yield to practical ones. The restriction of the interest or at least of the collections of many intending purchasers upon especially American forms appeared to the editor to be so far-spread that he thought to owe particular consideration to the nations of that part of the globe promising the greatest number of subscribers for the relative volumes.

This consideration appeared to the author to be the more necessary since just of late the work had been considerably subsidized by America. Beside many letters from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and Paraguay to the editor and the authors of the corresponding groups of lejndoptera, that were often mentioned in the text, we are particularly indebted to the United States and Mexico for their active support. Especially M:-. Roberto Mueller and Prof. Carlos Hoffmann in Mexico (City), Mr. W. Schaus and H. G. Dyar in Wa.shing- ton, by their rmselfish collaboration enabled us to fill up a great number of hitherto prevailing gaps and to eliminate former errors. By the kindness of some more eminent specialists of the American fauna, such as Barne.s, Benjamin, Boll, Snyder etc. whose names had been gratefully noted already in the first part of the work we were able to supply figures of specimens which would have never been possible but for the kind control of the owners of such rarities or even unic^ue specimens.

The mentioning of the names of all who assisted the editor in his gigantic work both by word and deed is probably neither intended by them nor is it to the interest of the work; but we consider it to be our duty to express at this place our sincere thanks for their endeavours.

The immense material to which we had to seek access for the sake of elaborating most satisfactorily the American lepidoptera was only partly available on the European Continent. The faunae of Canada and of the United States were the most represented in European, particularly German, Museums. This is especially the place where the above-mentioned assistance of the entomologists of the United States set in; and besides the literature on the North American fauna is already so copious that by its aid an approxi- mate survey particularly of the American d a y - bu 1 1 e r f 1 i e s could be obtained. By means of an abundant use of the works of .\bbot and Smith, Sctdder, the two Edwards, Holland, Wright and others with partly excellent figures, and by the aforesaid kind assistance of North American collectors, we believe to have supplied a compilation sufficient for the short draft to which such an extensive work has to be ronfined.

As to M e X i c o , the above-mentioned help of Mr. R. Mueller and Mr. C. Hoffmann enabled us to study novelties and rarities about \\hich others would scarcely have informed us. Prof. Dr. M. Draudt at Darmstadt, whose collection of Mexican lepidoptera is probably unexcelled in Europe, has on the base of this material personally elaborated the LycacniJae and Gnjpoccva and thereby rendered a particularly great service to the exploration of this rather defective field, and he was able to supjily nearly all the figures of more than a hundred newly described American day-butterflies.

C e n t r a 1 America which, by the renowned ..Biologia" of Salvin and Godman and later on by W. Schaus' publications, is better known than most of the South American tropical countries, could frec]uently


be elaborated according to the material of A. H. Fassl and the abundant collection yielded by Ribbe from the Chiriqui having been most kindly made accessible to us by the firm of Dr. Staudixger and Bang-Haas. But with respect to this faunistic region apart from Costa Rica perhaps we can state that numerous districts have been insufficiently explored, and already the near future may supply us with a more compendious enlarge- ment of our knowledge.

About Colombia and the districts of the Amazon and its tributaries the collections of A. H. Fassl give us ample information. Some plates, such as the Agrins on pi. 113 B, have almost entirely been made according to novelties from Fassl's Collection, which he collected in the unhealthy forests of Tropical South America and which co.st him his life, for he recently succumbed to the pernicious climate. We feel parti- cularly pleased that he left a permanent memorial in the Additions just to this fifth volume.

From Brazil and t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f So u t h A m e r i c a there existed lilcewise rich collec- tions. Garlepp's plentiful returns from Peru supplied particularly abundant material. In Bolivia it was like- wise Fassl who collected very thoroughly though not very long and who put his rich material at our disposal. For the adjacent parts of Argentina, the returns by Jose Steinbach yielded many good objects, whilst to the south of that country and in Uruguay the editor himself was able to make many observations. The same is the case with Brazil, where the editor collected considerable material especially in Bahia and from where the greatest part of the biological notes originate which were interspersed in the text. Of great value were the consignments from these South American districts by Mr. Zikan and Mr. Arp in Brazil.

Moreover, both the compilers and the editor, for the sake of their studies, endeavoured to make use of the special collections as well as of the large M ii s e u m s. We here once more beg to express our gratitude also to their directors or owners, as far as this had not already been done in the preface to the volumes of the first part. By their kindness Courvoisier's Collection of the Lycaenids could be viewed, and Mr. Abel in Leipsic hat the kindness to send us some of his Hesperids for comparison. If I mention here that for instance Lord Rothschild allowed me to study 2500 Erycinids of the Tring Museum, it is easily understood of what great importance such aid was in composing the different chapters.

If the conclusion of this volume has been delayed tor an entire decade, nobody will wonder at it who remembers that just the native land of the work was the centre of those terrible convulsions to which the world was exposed during that period. It is. on the contrary, astonishing and above all due to the subscribers' forbearance that a scientific work such as the present one was able to outlast all these heavy blows without being harmed otherwise.

I cannot edit this volume without emphatically thanking the compile r s of the different lepidopteral families as well as the p u b 1 i s h e r for the immense sacrifice which the continuation of this work required just in such hard times. It was the latter's ardent desire to reward, in close collaboration with the editor, the subscribers' great patience to which they had been exposed by the disastrous events of the last ten years, and to reach such a juncture, when the volume of the American day-butterflies could be put before the public and those of the Indian and African faunae are on the point of being concluded.

As to the way how the work was compiled, we may refer to the prefaces of the volumes of the palearctic part. Nothing has changed in the editor's position towards the so-called international nomenclatural rules. They must be rejected in the zoological world as a imiversally decisive code of laws, and entomology is not entitled to have an exclusive position therein. This, however, does not preclude that the greatest part of these rules, particularly those representing merely a precise wording of customs used long ago and having nowhere been refused, are useful and have therefore also been applied throughout the ,,Macrolepidoptera". They have probably only been rejected as a decisive code in as much as they did not only accosnplish their main object of creating a nomenclatural stability, but even often upset it, since constant unearthings and fresh interpretations of old names produced new conflicts with the whole liberature on this subject. As our work is intended to be only a manual, we have tried to giiard it against this defect which is mostly due to the principle of priority having been too rigidly interpreted, but otherwise we in no way restrained the anther in applying the customary nomenclatural laws.

It seems that many entomologists thought the ,,Macrolepidoptera" to offer the chance ot putting the treatment of lepidoptcrology on a scientific basis. The editor, however, could not chime in with this view for ideal and practical reasons. E very specialist usually considers those methods and maxims by means of which he gained his most important results to be the most valuable to science. It appears, however, to be impossible to attain in this way the uniformity of the total work aspired at by the editor. Nearly every chapter


would then have been subject to another principle of the mode of compilation. And besides every revolution must be substantiated, and thereby the extensive program of the work would have been rendered disharmonious, unhandy, and its contents would not have been enduring, but at any rate rather antipathetic to most of those using it, 95 percent of whom are no learned specialists. The editor therefore tried to prevent the authors from specialistic digressions however valuable they might be in monographies.

In the 5th volume, like in the volumes of the preceding part, a cursory inspection already shows that the text is chiefly thought to be a complement to the plates. Beside biological remarks it mostly contains hints to more subtile marks of distinction from closely allied species. Wherever the species were easily recognizable from the figures without any danger of errors, as in especially variegated and conspicuously marked genera {Perisama, Catagramma, Anaea, etc.), the text could be confined to but few words on synonymy and patria; on the contrary, certain complicatedly marketl Lycaenids or Hesperids often necessitated a somewhat minute description. At any rate the latter has been possible without exceeding very much the number of 1000 pages and 200 plates being the maxinnim number for the handincss of a volume.

In the text on the whole 15 000 names were explained and illustrated by about 9000 figures on the plates. No sensible man will demand or only expect all the figures to be faultless or even works of art. If, however, the later plates of this volume should exhibit more defects than the fir.st, this is due to the immense difficulties due to the war and revolution.

But we beg the readers to make allowance also for that part of the volume that appeared before the war, just as the reviewers had done for the first part. Fii'st and foremost the work is to serve as an orientation, for the cpiick recognition and estimation of materials, returns from explorations, collections, centuria, single specimens captin-ed etc. For this purpose the figures must be well recognizable and life-like, but they need not be highly artistic. In those cases where copies were only to be obtained from old, technically incomplete works, we have therefore not expressly refused the responsibility for the correctness of our figure. Those who know the old works and for monographies on single groups only such works will be taken into account will at first sight find out which figures were made according to Hewitson, Cramer, or Hubner, so that it appeared to be superfluous to supply long lists about the origin of each original or copy.

We only remark in general that nearly all the figures of the Papilio and Erycinidae were made accor- ding to specimens of the Tring Mustnim, the Pieridae and many N ymphalidae according to those from .1. Rober's collection at Dresden, the Morphidne, BrassoUdae, Prepona, Ageronia all from the Coll. Fruh.storfer, the Lycaenids according to those of the collections of Fassl, Staudinger-Bang-Haas, and of the editor. The Mexican forms are mostly copies by Dr. Draudt, ■^^hilst many 8atyrids originate from the collections of Statj- DiNGER and Weymer, now in Berlin.

Of particular importance I consider to be the statement that a great many Hesperid figures were taken from the work by Carl Plotz. Though this work, a great part of which is at present in the editor's posses.sioii (until its sale), has never been published in the volumes containing the plates (of which there exist about 20), yet, without the inspection of these plates, the numerous publications edited by Plotz cannot possibly be correctly determined. We therefore had some hundreds of the species mo.stly Hesperids appearing tons to be doubtful copied from the 5th, 9th, and 13 th yolumes, and by the comparison of these original figures it has been possible to remove many an error and doubt from science. Although Plotz' work was never for sale in the book-trade, yet at least part of it has been available to nearlj^ all the active lepidopterologists ; Hewitson, CtOdma\, Mabille etc. have frecpiently referred to this work. Many figures, particularly those of the Hesperids on more than 1500 plates (the 6 volumes of part XX), have been copied and published by SwiNHOE, Mabille etc. Thus we have also cited Plotz' work as an indispensable text-book and not ne\\ly denominated those species that are at once recognizable from the unicpie figures, but taken them over as sufficiently marked and distributed by copies.

As to the t e x t - V o I u m e we must remark that the editor is only responsible for the German edition. He had no influence upon the two other editions. The French edition, as far as it has been published after 1914, is at any rate entirely unknown to me; I have never seen a single copy. A real completeness could of course only be aspired until the time when the destructive effect of the World's War had not yet interrupted the scien- tific connexion amongst the nations. The further completion must be reserved to the supplementary numbers and to the time when the torn threads of scientific intercourse amongst the nations \\ill be reknittetl.

Unfortunately we could neitlier in this volume avoid annoying differences between the denominations in the text and on the plates. Technical reasons prevent us from starting simultaneously the description and illustration often based on the same specimen, and thus it was sometimes only after the accomplishment of


the plates that the figured specimens proved to deserve better another, mostly new name which could yet be done in the text, whilst the plates had already been published. We therefore beg to accept this drawback as the consequence of the continuous progress of our knowledge.

Thus the fifth volume, like its predecessors, is sent forth with the sole task of serving as a text-book to all the representatives and friends ot lepidopterology. Just as little as the author intended with the volumes of the first part, he strived to create a sumptuous work with as many surprises as possiljle, with im]n-ovcd systems and unexpected novelties. A systematically and uniformly arranged elaboration of the American day-butterflies, organized into a complete set, with a short description of the habits and stages of development, but with as much consideration of the variations, faunae and synonymy as possible, that is the main task of the work, and if it should be recognized from its contents with how great a devotedness the authors as well as the editor and publisher have bestowed their fullest attention to this design, this acknowledgment svill be their best reward.

Darmstadt, May 1924.

Dr. Adalbert Seitz.



of the


All rights reserved.


The i>:iant continent of America, which extends fnim the eternal snows of the arctic polar region further south than any otlier continent, is better adapted than any other to the production of an inexhaustible wealth of the most varied animal forms. Ojien almost everywhere to the moisture-laden east winds from the Atlantic, it admits the fertilising rains far into the interior, and thus develops an extensive and finely branched network of watercourses, which, in conjunction with the varying conditions of climate and warmth in the successive zones, call into l^eing a fauna of (juite unique variety.

Originating from the circumpolar arctic fauna, the entire fauna from southern Canada to Texas acquires a character apjiroaching that of Europe and central Asia. Not only that the dominant animal forms in temjierate North America belong, for the most part, to groups which also play a principal role in the temperate zone of the Old World , the geographical distribution shows also here the most striking analogies. Among the Lepidoptera, Arf/i/miis, Mditaea, l^aiicssa, Ajxitiira, Arctiids and Gatocalas figure ]nominently in both, and as a single outstanding difference, the preponderance of the Hesperids in America, as against the prevalence of Satyrids in the Old World, is manifest even on superficial consideration. But the sum total of the forms to be observed in the northern temperate zone is almost equal in both hemispheres, while one half of the eastern temperate lands corresponding roughly to the whole of the western contains about the same numljer of Lejiidoptera as that, namely about 6500 forms.

This is changed as soon as we reach the tropical zone in America. (Juite suddenly all resemblance to the fauna of the Old World vanishes. The singular and highly characteristic Morpho, Ithomia, Melin.aea and HcUcniiiii^, Castnia and (Tkiiiropii^, Pfricopis; and f'jiUopoila, the wonderful forms of neotropical Erycinids the tailed Hesperids, etc., have no counterparts in the Old World. They give to the South American fauna such a distinct individuality, even compared with that of the cooler parts of North America (north of Mexico), that the lepidopterous fauna of South America may well be designated the most characteristic of the world. What its princij)al pecularities are, has already been pointed out in the introduction to this work, and will be further considered below.

That in spite of all this we have decided not to separate the North from the South American fauna, as has hitherto been done in zoogeography, under the terms Neotropical and Nearctic, is due to the fact that a basis for any sharp delimitation is wanting here, as it is between the Indian and Australian faunistic regions. Just as the limits there drawn by Wallace are arbitrary, so also in America the otherwise applicable principle of faunistic division fails us. Let us, for exam])le, compare the conditions in America with those of the much more compact continent of Africa: south of the Sahara there is no species of Euchloi-, no Aporia, no Procrh, no true Zijiptoui. no Varif^t^a, no Paranp', no OciiO(/>/iia, in short all the species are absent which in North Africa are the commonest, not to say the most obtrusive representatives of the butterfly world. On the other hand the north has no Ki/phacdru, no Ci/niothoe or Euriiphetic, all the groups of Fapilio and Pierids which are distributed throughout the rest of Africa are wanting, we seek in vain for Amaiiris, which is so characteristic of the whole of tropical Africa, and so on.

In America there is no such insujterable barrier as is formed by the great Sahara desert of Africa, with its absence of vegetation. Thus we find the otherwise purely South American Neotropids pushing northwards into California, the genus Hrllcoii'nia into Florida, while Ar;///Hni!>, Col/as, Catoada, etc., extend their range southwards on the heights of the Andes; in a word, the two faunas so encroach upon one another that we prefer to draw no boundary at all rather tlian an artificial one; and we do this so much the more willingly because these theoretical considerations iit in with a series of practical ones.

Among the characteristics of the lepido[)terous fauna of America, which are most ])rominent in South America, we would mention its richness in species. It used to be said that the double continent of America alone contained about as many species as all the rest of the world. This comparison was appUcable so long as we had not learned to tlistinguish all the numerous local forms of certain Jlalayan

4 INTRODUCTION. By Dr. A. Seitz.

and Indo-Chinese butterflies, which result in the appearance of a single species, on all those larger and smaller islands of the Malay Archipelago, in a dress similar, yet with constant diiferences according to the locality. But since the species of the Old World have been spht up into such a large number of races or local varieties, or subspecies, rainy- and dry-season forms, mountain forms and those of the lowlands, the more compact' South America, being for the most part more regularly tempered, without pronounced rainy season, has lost very much of its preeminence.

Now when one takes into consideration that any buttertly, of whatever species, would be able to tly from Canada as far as to Cape Horn without meeting with any direct, insurmountable obstacle neither such a sharply defined desert as separates Northern from Central and Southern Africa, nor a sea, as between Australia and India it is not easy to understand how it is that we find Castnias, Neotropids, Hesperids or Catao-rammas in almost every district of America in distinct forms, mostly unconnected with one another by transitions. In this is manifest a creative energy of unusual richness, such as occurs in no other country to the same extent.

The lavish endowment of its species with brilliant and conspicuous colours is the second principal characteristic of the American fauna. In India and tropical Africa there are also plenty of gay species, which fact we do not leave out of account; but while the Old World everywhere produces, side by side with the gay and richly ornamented forms, multitudes of others which are tawny, white or neutral brown in colour, many of the open i)laces in the South American woods are alive with the little gold- and silver- marked Syntomids or the azure blue giant butterflies. None of the Old World species can vie with AnjDpfcron aiireipemm in its pure golden under surface, or show such rich adornment of silver as Dione monefa, or such brilliant blue ground colour as Morjjho cypris. And even those colours which have not the metallic or silky gloss are nevertheless extremely elegant and pleasing in their arrangement. Very frequently they consist of bright red, orange or blue-green bands or longitudinal spots on a deep black ground, resulting in more quiet richness and fidness of colour than a stifler, more overloaded scheme of markings. Such crude contrasts of colour as occur in the Papiliu agamemu.on group, in NeHvonigma and in Catphisus, are rare in America. A deeply coloured , though almost always only unicolorous band suffices to make Epicalia, Chlorippe and Prepona, CaUicorc and AdcJpha the most beautiful forms which a refined taste could imagine.

The phenomenon of mimicry, which was fully discussed in the introduction to the first part of this work, appears in America in an altogether sjiecial and characteristically modified manner. There are many localities in South America, often (juite circumscribed in extent, in which almost all the lepidopterous species that occur in any numbers have one and the same wing-pattern indifferently, whether they be butterflies or moths, whether stoutly-built Swallowtails or weak Pierids or shy Nymphalids. In Colombia one may see flying about a single flowering shrub a number of butterflies all coloured and marked alike, but belonging to four entirely different groups. They are all black with an oblique scarlet band on the forewings. The first is a Fierid (Ferenfe Ifiicodrosi/mc), the second a Heliconius (Hclicoiii/is mc/pdiiiciie), the third a Swallowtail (Papilio entcrphutx) and the fourth (Adelpha itfix) a species of Nymphalid allied to Limenitis. In certain districts of Southern Brazil a yellow band on the forewing and dentated longitudinal stri])es on a brownish yellow ground provide the general scheme, which is followed by Pierids (PcrJu/bris, l)mmorphi(t), Danaids (Li/corca), Helicouians (Hc/icuiiiHs juircaea) and even some moths (Clidoiie). I have elsewhere spoken of a tendency of ceitain districts to produce uniformity in their inhabitants, and although kindred phenomena are not wanting in India, or particularly in Africa, they are far less conspicuous there than in America.

Just as the present mammalian faima of South America is wanting in gigantic forms, so too its Lepidoptera are for the most part of only medium size. Only in Cnlif/o, Morplio, some Sphingids and the giant Noctuid Tki/sdniu w/rippiuit. do we find great dimensions attained ; there are no actual parallels to the huge Attacna, or to Ornithoptcra with its great uncouth females. And as in size, so also in shape there is not the same tendency towards grotesque, unintelligible forms as one is struck by in many genera of the Old World, such as Lcpiocircns , Serichms, Drifri/n antimachiia, etc. Beyond the development of tails in normally untailed families (Ni/mphalidca', Kri/ciuidne, Hesperidae) there is little that is very strange in the aspect of the American Lepidoptera,

In addition to these peculiarities of the American fauna, there are some others which are not so difficult to explain. In a large number of districts, es])ecially in South America, there are no regular wet and Avy seasons. In the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro sudden changes are possible on almost anj- day of the year, and the rainless periods are variable both in their duration and in the time of their arrival. Thus the conditions there as we have already l)riefly mentioned do not lend themselves in the same pronounced way to the development of seasonal dimorphism as in many localities of the Old World, where tlie conditions of weather are perfectly regular, the rains and the heat of the sun being confined to certain months.

Polymorphism also does not seem, in another respect, to be developed to the same degree as in the Old Woild; namely, in its local conditions. Although in Papilin /i/sifliom,, for example, we observe the same conditions which obtain in many Indian species, namely that in ditterent districts it mimics the different

INTKUDLiCTiUN. By Dr. A. yEii/. 5

Aristolochia-Papilios whicli occur there e. g. in South Brazil as P. pompoiiiiit^, mimicking P. pvi-rhrlms, in Rio de Janeiro in tlie form h/nilbo/is, cojiying P. (if/nrug yet vvitliout doubt sucli cases are wanting in America as that of the Indian /'. iiieiinion. in wliich some 30 ditferent forms of female belong to one almost constant male form.

The strict localisation of Lepidoptera in America is easily explained by the peculiarities of the conditions of vegetation. Like the Old World steppes, the prairies of North America and the Pampas of South America are not adapted to produce a great abundance of forms or even a inoderate number of showy and elegant species. Hence we find Morpho, the larger Nymphalids, Cus/iild , etc., disappear rather suddenly from the district as soon as we leave the great Southern and Central American forest region. Hence, also, the West Indies, which are either poor in forests or altogether devoid of them, are far behind the neighbouring mainland in respect of their le})idopterous fauna, while conversely the East Indian Archipelago is especially rich in species.

It greatly surprises those who \isil ditferent jtarts of the American continent to notice the great resemblance between northern and southern districts which are separated by vast tracts of land differing entirely from both. The Argentine jiampas produce species altogether analogous to those of the United States, often even the same species, while they are absent from the whole of the Neotropical forest region which intervenes. Almost at the same latitude where the last Morpho leaves us, whether northward or southward, we find CoUaa, Pi/raniris fanjc and Dciojiein tlying. Kiiploirhi cldndin occurs both in the United States and in Uruguay in hardly distinguishable forms, wliile in the intervening tropical South America it is entirely absent, being supplanted by the very ditferent Enjit. hcfpsid. Nothing analogous is known in the Eastern Hemisphere : the lunnerous Acraeas of South Africa vanish in the tropical zone and do not reappear north of the Sahara: Ar<i//Hii/s, which in America appears again in Chili and Argentina after missing the tropics, vanishes finally in the East on reaching the tropical I'egion; neither South Africa nor Australia possesses any species of the Nymphalid group, which is so plentifully rejiresented in the North. On the contrary the well-represented Precis;, Amaiirk, etc., of South Africa do not reapi)ear in North Africa or in Europe, and of other characteristic genera of the Old World, such as Tcmrohis and <'h(iraxe:<, scarcely one species in a hundred extends from one temperate zone across the tropics to the other.

The role which the individual families play in the American fauna will be easily seen from the special part; attention need only he called here to a few points which result from a comparison of the fauna of the New W^orld with that of the Old.

The Papilios of temperate North America surjiass those of the corresponding latitudes of the Old World. San Francisco, St. Louis or Washington has two or three times as many species of PapiJio as Spain, Algiers or Asia Jlinor, while on the other hand Ptirnasaiiix, rich as it is in forms in the Old World, has only a few somewhat scattered, subordinate forms in the New.

The Pierids are pretty equally rei)resented on both sides of the Atlantic, especially since some have been transplanted during the last centur}'.

The Danaids show an extremely close parallelism. With only a single species crossing the 40 th degree of N. latitude, their number so increases in the tropics as to become dominant, and the number of very closely related forms would be almost equally the same in the Western Hemisphere as in the Eastern if we reckoned the Neotropids, about to be mentioned.

But the Satyrids are considera])ly less prominent in the temperate zone of the New World than in that of the Old. In the tropics, where the Satyrids wane and tend to give place to other groups, the contrast becomes less.

Preeminent among American forms are the Ithomiidae, related to Danais, and which have been designated Neotropids, from their characteristic occuri'ence in the Neotropical region. Even the earliest naturalists who made any adequate observations in South America, such as Bates and Wai-lacj:, were astonished at the enormous number of individuals, as well as the multitude of species which occurred together in snuiU and circumscriljed localities; Bates even wondered how the species, often deceptively similar to one another, managed to find out their right mates for copulation. Haase, on morphological grounds, comj)ares with this group, so rich in species, the genus Hamat^ri/a:^ of the Old World, which is equally poor in forms; from the biological standpoint it is better comiiared with Euploat.

The Nymphalids, as one of the most universal groups, occupy a prominent jiosition in both hemispheres. It is hard to say on which continent their preponderance over certain other families of Rhopalocera is the most conspicuous. It is the Nymphalids which include most of the forms that are common to both hemispheres. ]'aiiess<( (intiopn, Pijramch atrdiii and afidanta, Poli/ijonia r-a/biini, Aygifiiii/s fric/ar/s, frr/ja, frii/f/a, cluiricJca, etc., connect the American fauna with the eastern and to a certain extent form a bridge.

The Erycinids of the Old World do not come anywhere near the wealth and variety of forms to which this family attains in America. To little over 100 species of the Eastern Hemisphere there are above 1000 in the Western, and at the same time the former are comparatively uniform structurally while the latter show manifold diiTerences. America not only produces a number of original forms in this family, but

6 IXTKODL'C'IIOX. By Dr. A. Si;itz.

it is also rich in examples of mimicry, in which Erycinids copy members of the Nymphalids, Ithomiids and even protected Heterocera. Thus Tliemone pais mimics a Mcvhanitis, T/iemoiie j)oeci/a a I'hi/ciodes, Ifliomeis and Compsotheria copy Neotropids, Li/ropteri/x olinia resembles in flight a Calodesnia of ([uite the same colouring, and the little Sijrmatia, with their (piick, buzzing flight, bear, as they dash past one, more resemblance to tlies than to buttei'tlies.

The Lycaenids show, in the northern Nearctic region, many forms belonging to the genus Li/caetia or nearly related thereto ; but as one proceeds further south Theda-like forms increase, much as in the Old World. These Neotropical forms greatly exceed in size and brilliance the Indian Arhopala.

The most interesting American group is unquestionably the Hesperids, which in many South American localities occur in such a wealth of forms and individuals as to surpass, in variety and abundance, all the rest of the Lepidoptera. The long-tongued species appear to be the sole fertilising agents for some plants, and the picture of the white-tlowered bushes thickly covered with black Eanth abides vividly in the memory of everyone who has collected in South America.

Among the Heterocera the Zygaenids are far less prevalent' than the Syntomids, which are extremelj' well represented and often lavishly adorned with metallic colours. Here a wide field is opened for mimicry. The moths which are still commonh- designated "Glaucopids" appear in the most wondeiful garb, some copying the predacious Hemiptera, others beetles, but the largest number Hymenoptera. The strongest Hymenoptera in the woi-ld, the species of Pepsis, which wound bird-spiders with their sting and carry them off as food for their offspring, are copied by a very large number of Syntomid species. Under the name of "Marimbondo" this wasp is dreaded in America both by men and animals, on account of its terrible sting, so that in fact no better model could be found for protective resemblance. Entire genera of Syntomids, such as Macrocncnic, almost exclusiveh' copy these giant wasps.

The Castniids present, in some measure, a transition from the moths to the Hesperids. The true Gastniids, such as the genera Castiua, Gazera, etc., are absolutely confined to America and indeed to its tropical and subtrojiical parts. We see in them moths with entirely the habits of butterflies , which not only feed, like many day-tliers, at tlowers which grow in the sun, but also station themselves on jioints of vantage at the extremities of the foliage where they dri\'e off their enemies, play with their own kind, and lay wait for the passing females.

The Arctiids of North America present many similar forms to those of the Old World , several genera and some species, such as Arctiu cnja, Parasemui plunUicjiiiis, Phrngmatohia fuJigbumi, being common to both hemispheres, without belonging to the holarctic polar fauna. The specifically American forms do hot make their appearance in numbers till further south, where they appear of an entirely different build and colour; as Ecpantheria and Hulesldofd, which are specially developed in Central America, and the curious Pdliisfrii, whose larva is a(iuatic. But although the most singular forms of "tiger-moths" live in the tropics, the gayest and most beautifully marked are found in temperate North America, such as Apaiitegis, ■Plati/pjrepia, Haploa, etc.

The Lithosiids, which in America, as in the Old World, are represented mostly by small forms, are often, esiieciallj- in tropical America, brightly coloured and of diurnal habits. In North America itself scarcely 50 forms occur, the>- seem to reach the height of their development in the warm valleys of the Andes, just as in the East the slopes of the Himalayas have been shown to be particularly favourable to their production. No s])ecies are known which are connnon to both hemispheres; indeed hardly any genera, it we follow Hampsox (as against Kirby and Dv.\r) in removing Utetlwka from the family Lithosiidde.

The Liparids of America, in so far as we accept the present composition of this family, are considerably less prevalent than those of the eastern world. Ocneria dispur, the "gypsy-moth", is an introduced species, whereas Orgijj,( ,inthp(,(, which is widely distributed in the west of the Old World, and reaches far north, is to be regarded as indigenous. We assume this to be so, although the species is common at some of the European ports (particularly Handnirg) and the larva is fond of spinning up on bales of merchandise, where the sluggish female als(j lays its eggs, so that every year large numbers are probably dispersed to the four winds. In the genus Gi/iniepliDrn the Liparids of America possess the species (/'. groenlandicK and ros.s//, which reach the farthest north of all the Heterocera perhaps of all Lepidoptera.

The Limacodids, a family of universal distribution, are very plentifidly lepresented in South and Central America, and develop elegantly marked, though small forms, manj- of them with a silky or metallic gloss on the wings. From temperate America about 50 forms are known, which is about '/m of the total of known species. From the whole of America perhaps three times as many are known, or over ','3 of the total of known forms. It is remarkable that the northern part of America produces a far larger nund^er of forms than that of the Palaearctic Region, which in many districts is very poor in Limacodids; thus in the whole of Europe only two species occur, i. e. less than 72 per cent, of the known species.

The Psychids as still constituted at pi'esent, do not form a homogeneous family. The case-making ot the larvae and the degeneracy of the female are due to convergence, though Ihev iuue repeatedly been taken to indicate relationship. In America the Psvchids plav only a small role: oulv 15 per cent, of the

IXTROnrCTIOX. P.v Dr. A. Smrz. 7

200 known forms inlialiit the western continent , and only altmit a dozen of these occur in temperate Nortli America.

It might appear singuhir that a family wluise females are each and all immovable sliould have such an enormous range as the Psychids. which are represented in the remotest islands, such as New Zealand, TenerifFe, etc., and often by characteristic species. But it must not be forgotten that their larvae are extremely active and endowed with great powers of resistance, and many, if not all the species are parthenogenetic, i. e. capable of propagating without previous co])uIation. Nothing would be more erroneous than to infer the existence of a submerged continent from the occurrence of the Psychids on both coasts of the Atlantic. Their transplantation from America to the Old World and vice versa could very easily be effected by drift-wood. I have fished out from the Plata River tloating boughs on which a number of cases of OiketicKK p/afeii^/K were spun up. some containing sound lai'vae, others living pupae. It appears that the larva is capal)le of making its case watertight. I found large Psychid cases on the coast of North-Shore in the harl)our of Sydney, Australia, which were spun up on the rocks, and over which e\ery wave washed at tlood-tide; they contained uninjured larvae. Thus their transplantation by means of drift-wood is not at all improbable; indeed they are not even threatened by many special dangers for their long and troublesome voyage. Psychid larvae can fast for a very long time, and when this is no longer possible to them, any food is accepted. The larvae of Aiiiicta fcbretfn, which I took in numbers in North Africa from a dry desert-plant, were fed up to the pupal stage in Europe on pear-i)eel; and inasmuch as a single female Psychid is sufticient to increase the range of a species, the greater wonder is that no species of this family is cosmopolitan, indeed that there is none which is possessed by America in common with the Palaearctic fauna.

The Lasiocampids as a whole are not yet sufficiently well known to allow of our forming a definite judgment as to their distribution. Without doubt America has over one-third of the SOO 1000 existing forms. With the very large number of sjiecies which are already known from South America, it must be assumed that a more thorough exploration of the interior of Brazil will bring to light many more. As at present constituted, the grouj) is not even homogeneous, so that many alterations are to be expected when the Neotropical forms, in particular, are fully worked out. As the family is now constituted, America possesses numerous exceptionally interesting forms. The larvae of the genus Mi'gii/opi/c/e, remarkable for their pecuhar tufts of hairs, are dreaded in America on account of the inflammation which these hairs cause. In one lady who came undei' my treatment they had produced swellings on the arm and breast, with several days' fever, so that their effects even exceed in intensity those of the hairs of Thuiiniatopoca. Sometimes there is an unusually promaniced sexual dimorphism in this family, as in l^IcIiniH/n" /I'lf/cnutecheri, whose female was long known as D/r/i/i/n rosfom. In the Xew Wm-ld. as in the Old. some of the Lasiocampids are of economic importance.

The Saturnids, of which there are somewhat over 400 species in all. are almost equally divided between the New World and the Old. In this magnificent group the relative richness of America is shown by its attaining, in the number of its Saturnids. to a total equalling those of the great continents of Asia and Africa combined. Against six for the whole of Europe, some 40 forms inhabit temperate North America. The Cerato campids, too, which are related to the Saturnids, and of which there are about .50 forms, belong to America alone; whilst the Bralnnaeids of the east possess hardly more than a dozen forms. On the other hand America is somewhat beliind the Old World in respect of the true Bombycids.

The .\merican Sphingids, in comparison with those of the Old World, show a proportion of 3 : 5, 370 out of about 1000 known forms occurring in the New World. The exhaustive work of Rothschild and .JdiiDAN has thrown a very full light on the distribution of this family. America is particularly rich in gigantic hawk-moths, such as P<icliijU<i , Cuv>/fiiis, Flio/ns, I'Hciidn^phiiir, etc. One would expect, from the extensive powers of flight of most Sphingids, that quite a number of representatives of this group would be common to both hemispheres, -which, however, is not the case; only (pute a few species, such as Celerio Ihieata and i/dll/i, appear in both without any very material differences.

In the Notodontids we have another heterogeneous group, in the composition of which alterations will certainly be made at least by its splitting up into several groups when it is worked out morpho- logically with a regard for the finer anatomical